A 'horror story' for the books

David Herron -- One of the vertebrae (david@g.ms.uky.edu)
4 Sep 88 15:03:56 GMT

Ok, maybe this one should have been obvious. But if it hadn't been
for Doug Kingston giving me a short list of things to check over I
would've been a *lot* longer in finding the problem. (*Thanks*!)

The short description is that a number of applications (ftp, smtp, etc)
stopped working between some of our machines after switching our
vaxen over to Ultrix v2.2 (from MtXinu 4.3bsd + NFS -- a step backward
if you ask me, but it's a looong story). A question to the mmdf
mailing list (at the time I knew only that smtp didn't work) elicited
a reply from Doug that he thought it was more likely TCP/IP differences
and to check things like trailers and MSS ... A check found that sure
'nuff we had some machines with trailers and some without. Switching
off trailers on the interface made the applications work again.

I've got a couple of questions for the assembled experts:

1. Why did things continue to sort-of work between the conflicting
   machines? I haven't looked at the code yet, but my understanding
   of the rfc is that ALL packets will be trailer-ified when going
   out a trailer link (or on 4.3bsd, out a trailer link AND when
   the host in question negotiated trailer use). If ALL the packets
   were trailer-ified then the hosts would be seeing data where they
   were expecting header data and get all confused.
2. Why does Sun not recommend trailers? Do they use a different
   page size than vaxen? Or is it -- in general it's not good to
   use trailers on machines other than vaxen or it's not good to use
   trailers in a mixed environment?
3. Is there any financial aid and/or cheaper rates for a student
   who wants to attend Interop '88?

The following is the long version. It's the report which I wrote up
for all the networking people on campus.

- Date: Thu, 1 Sep 88 17:11:33 EDT
- From: David Herron E-Mail Hack <david@ms.uky.edu>
- To: uk-net-people@ms.uky.edu
- Subject: trailers
- Message-ID: <8809011711.aa06222@g.e.ms.uky.edu>
- Oooo boy, the tiny things that'll cause problems ...
- We've had a confusing problem over here since converting to Ultrix,
- that some of the programs would work to/from Ultrix machines and other
- times they wouldn't. Like, an outgoing smtp connection would work fine
- until it sent out that trailing '.' whereupon it would hang.
- Some asking around led to a suggestion to check trailers, MSS (Max
- Segment Size) and a few other options. Some checking around in the
- code of the affected programs revealed no non-portable code which
- Ultrix broke. Ultrix was, fortunately, enough alike (still) BSD that
- things worked as they did under BSD. Albeit with an older technology
- of TCP/IP. Eventually I ended up at the trailers suggestion.
- What's a trailer? Well, all it says in the manual page is some
- mumbling about changing the layout of IP packets to reduce the amount
- of copying that's involved. They are documented in RFC893, and related
- rfc's are 984 & 894 which cover the details of doing IP across ethernet
- like mediums.
- The trailer idea is to fix the size of the data portion of the IP
- packet at some multiple of the page size of your machine. Since the
- idea was originally developed at UCB for 4.2, the size is 512 bytes or
- some multiple (The page size on a Vax). The information which would
- normally be at the head of the packet (IP header information like
- to/from addresses, packet size & etc) are moved to the end and are now
- called 'trailers'. There is also two other things added to the trailer;
- a protocol type field and a trailer length field.
- Unfortunately they didn't do anything intelligent originally like
- negotiate use of trailers on a per host basis. Instead trailers
- are either on or off on a per interface basis, and is done at
- boot time when ifconfig is run. UCB's next version did do
- negotiation as part of ARP but in the meantime the 4.2 version
- of TCP/IP became part of many systems, many of which we have
- here on our ethernet.
- Looking at the various manual pages I have access to:
- 4.3bsd negotiable per host (default=trailers)
- WIN/TCP non-negotiable (default=trailers)
- sun v3.4 non-negotiable. also 'not recommended'
- because it's host dependant. (default=trailers)
- ultrix 2.2 non-negotiable (default=trailers)
- Some of our machines had trailers turned off and some had them turned
- on. Brian had thought it wasn't important because it was negotiated
- and turned them on ... oh well.
- One thing I'm not sure about is why things sort-of worked ... between
- two non-negotiating hosts which disagreed over the trailer issue there
- shouldn't have been *any* communication, because they disagree over
- where the 'header' information is to be kept. Probably there is something
- else going on as well, but I'm not sure what.
- For now we've turned off trailers on all of our machines. Would the rest
- of you look into your configurations and tell me which ones can do trailers
- to begin with, and which ones can negotiate it. (The negotiation is part
- of the ARP protocol). This is another of those TCP/IP options which needs
- to be agreed upon across our whole ethernet. er.. Well ... if someone were
- to have an IP gateway between their net and the campus net, they would be
- able to do what they want on their net.
- Maybe we want to run with trailers on everywhere. But we need to make
- sure that it makes sense for all the machines...
- --
- <---- David Herron -- The E-Mail guy <david@ms.uky.edu>
- <---- ska: David le casse\*' {rutgers,uunet}!ukma!david, david@UKMA.BITNET
- <---- Problem: how to get people to call ...; Solution: Completely reconfigure
- <---- your mail system then leave for a weeks vacation when 90% done.

<---- David Herron -- The E-Mail guy			     <david@ms.uky.edu>
<---- ska: David le casse\*'	  {rutgers,uunet}!ukma!david, david@UKMA.BITNET
<---- Problem: how to get people to call ...; Solution:	Completely reconfigure
<---- your mail	system then leave for a	weeks vacation when 90%	done.

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